Decentralized DNA Storage Mechanism for Healthcare

Harnessing Blockchain Technology to Lay the Foundation for Tomorrow’s DNA Ecosystem.

The flexibility of blockchain infrastructures has captivated innovators, entrepreneurs and developers across a number of verticals (more so than ever in the past year). Many are beginning to truly appreciate the properties that make distributed ledger technologies so valuable, notably where data security is concerned.

Blockchains are perhaps best described, in simple terms, as append-only databases that are controlled by a consensus mechanism made up of numerous participants (without a hierarchy or centralized overseer). Compared to a traditional database, this means that there is no central point of failure for an attacker to target. The participants in question will each maintain a copy of this ledger, synchronizing it with that of their peers when a ‘block’ (chunk of data) is added to the network.

This may not seem particularly exciting at first glance, but it is, in fact, a very powerful tool — each block added to the ledger is cryptographically linked to the prior one, meaning that any attempt to alter the information will be automatically rejected by the rest of the participants. As such, blockchains are often touted as being immutable and tamper-proof.

The security of such networks stems from this structure, the topology at the peer-to-peer level and the use of robust cryptography (private/public keypairs) to ensure that only the individual uploading data can decrypt it or demonstrate ownership.

Towards Medical Applications

Home genetic testing has been garnering a lot of attention from consumers recently as services like Ancestry or 23AndMe have cropped up to provide insights into the health of the user — at the cost, of course, of the sharing of genomic data.

It’s hard to imagine a source of data more personal to an individual than their genetic information. It stands to reason that it’s crucial that said data is kept both secure and private — easier said than done in an age of digitization of information, home DNA testing kits and rampant data breaches.

Most companies go to lengths to anonymized your data before sharing it, and to keep it secure. But sharing this type of sensitive personal information comes with an inherent risk. Consumer genetic testing firms are not typically bound by HIPAA, which means the flow of personal information is completely unregulated. And the more places data flows, the more chances there are for it to leak.

Blockchain technology may initially seem ideally suited to these ends, though it’s just a partial solution — one of the trade-offs of an immutable distributed ledger is that its throughput is somewhat lacking (remember that every participant must record every interaction), and storing even small amounts of data is an expensive and time-consuming task.

Evidently, in designing a platform for mass adoption, a sort of hybridized approach is best. Leveraging the features of blockchain technology and combining it with more scalable storage mediums, vastly superior alternatives to the existing ‘data silo’ phenomenon can be built. With such alternatives, secure repositories of data that are controlled entirely by the individual are anchored in the blockchain, which provides an unalterable record of the interactions occurring across the network.

True Self-Sovereignty

Third-party custodians and data security are not concepts that go hand-in-hand. We’ve seen the catastrophic consequences that breaches like that of Equifax and Facebook can have on the lives of their victims. It’s not something that can be allowed to continue in transitioning masses of genetic information into the digital realm. DNA is not as easily changed as a username/password.

With a tech stack built on top of a blockchain, we can reverse some of the damaging patterns that have emerged as a result of a trust-heavy data ecosystem, putting individuals wholly back in control of information that belongs to them in the first place. Though the concept of an entirely ‘self-sovereign identity’ has existed for a couple of decades now, we’re finally beginning to perfect the technologies that would make truly private and secure interactions in the digital space possible.

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World Sprint Champion Lion Martinez Joins Shivom Innovation Council

The M35 100-metre world sprint champion Lion Martinez joined Shivom Innovation Council (SIC) on February 1, 2019. Shivom is a biotechnology data and analysis company optimizing the way DNA is shared, secured and analysed. It leverages innovative technologies such as blockchain and machine-learning algorithms to democratize genomics.

Lion joining SIC marks the very first steps of Shivom into building a sport, athletics and well being initiative. The sports initiative will use state-of-the-art genomics and AI algorithms to develop science-based programs to make people fitter and perform on a higher level. The program seeks to identify from genetic bases as to what makes an athlete an, in turn, this data into meaningful insight for sports and fitness individuals who are interested in trying innovative and evidence-based training programs to improve their efficiencies. With his experience in athletics, Lion will play a key role in strategizing on the same.

SIC is an internal think tank at Shivom which supports and guides the senior management on the latest technologies, industry trends and strategies. It includes expert scientists, groundbreaking healthcare solution-providers, cyber security pioneers and genomics researchers. The council includes the likes of Taavi Roivas, former prime minister of Estonia and Antanas Guoga, a Lithuanian representative at the European Parliament. With Lion coming onboard, Shivom plans to foray into sports and well being soon.

Lion, who in his own words “likes cooking, gaming and toast”, has 20 years of experience in marketing, and brand and product management. He professional endeavours include working in various capacities with global companies such as Electronic Arts, Disney, Warner Brothers, Asus and Sony, among several others. Lion is presently the Global Product Manager of e-sport software company Wasder AB.

A former national and European-level athlete, Lion has numerous national gold medals (in 100-metre sprint) in his kitty. He was also the youngest-ever Swedish to have participated in the 2002 European Championships in Munich. Lion holds a 100-metre world championship gold medal (2016) and has numerous records and medals (in 60, 100 and 200-metre sprints) to his credit. Additionally, he has been involved in coaching, public speaking and widespread health issues and initiatives over the past 20 years, engaging with children, youth, adults and senior citizens alike. We believe he will become the torchbearer of the planned sports initiatives at Shivom.

About Shivom
Shivom is a biotechnology data and analysis company optimizing the way DNA is shared, secured and analysed. By utilizing innovative technologies such as blockchain and machine-learning algorithms, we are able to democratize genomics. Doing so, we empower data-owners, researchers and pharmaceutical companies with the ability to securely share, store and analyse DNA data quickly, efficiently and at any scale. For further information, please visit: https://www.shivom.io/

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The Cervical Cancer Awareness Month is here! How aware are you

Cervical Cancer Awareness Month is here! How aware are you?

The Cervical Cancer Awareness Month is here! How aware are you

How often have you come across a patient of cervical cancer around you? Chances are, rarely. But reality begs to differ. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over six per cent women around the world (including 570,000 new cases) suffered from cervical cancer in 2018. Sadly, the statistics of both the developed and developing countries tell a similar horrifying story. Every day, nine women in the UK are diagnosed with cervical cancer and three lose their battles to life. In the US, nearly 13,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer every year, which amounts to an appalling 36 women falling prey every day! Developing countries like India have morbid statistics too. As per a study by National Center for Biotechnology Information, India alone accounts for a quarter of cervical cancer cases globally. Approximately 270,000 women across the world die from cervical cancer yearly, with 85 per cent deaths occurring in low-to-middle income countries. Owing to the gigantic figures, the United States Congress designated January as the Cervical Health Awareness Month.

Most common among women aged around 35 years, cervical cancer has remained, through times, an ignominious reality. However, even more lamentable is the fact that 75 per cent of such cases are actually prevented by cervical screening (or smear tests) and vaccination. Yet, one in four women does not attend this potentially life-saving test because of embarrassment. Some time back as part of the Pink Chain campaign, a study among schoolteachers in India was conducted. It revealed that cervical cancer was the second most common cancer in India. It also identified and assessed the level and impact of awareness programs in the adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. Uneasiness around discussing the topic with friends, family and peers emerged as the main reason behind women not coming forward for tests and treatment.

While cervical cancer rates have dropped significantly within the United States over the past few decades, it still remains a critical global health issue. The high mortality rate for cervical cancer in the developing world is driven by limited access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. Laboratory-based methods used to detect cervical cancer, and the personnel required to perform and analyse them may be unavailable in developing nations. In an alarming finding, it was identified that approximately 90 per cent of deaths from cervical cancer occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Likewise, the ability to treat cervical cancer is highly dependent on access to surgical facilities, chemotherapy agents and radiation equipment.

The high global mortality rate despite having mechanisms to diagnose and treat this cancer is a matter of great concern. Doctors and researchers have time and again emphasized that more awareness programs need to be run and sustained in order to literate people, especially women, to combat this cancer. Women must be encouraged to speak, walk up to a doctor and get her diagnosed. Reduction in mortality could be induced through a comprehensive approach which includes preventive care, early diagnosis, effective screening and treatment, and follow-ups. Particularly, in countries where screening programs are not available, identifying cervical cancer at an early stage and providing effective treatment can improve the likelihood of survival. Presently, in many low-income nations, the disease is often not identified until in advanced stages.

Widespread training and awareness programs run by state governments in partnership with CSR divisions of private firms can also be a way forward in combating cervical cancer. They must be made educated on the initial symptoms of the cancer. WHO Package of Essential non-communicable (PEN) disease interventions for primary healthcare in low-resource settings has guidance on the approach to assessing and referring affected women in the primary care setting. This must be widely publicized through various broadcast channels. In one of its studies, the WHO has concluded that “… screening should be performed at least once for every woman in the target age group (30-49 years) when it is most beneficial; HPV testing, cytology and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) are all recommended screening tests;  cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) can provide effective and appropriate treatment for the majority of women who screen positive for cervical pre-cancer; “screen-and-treat” and “screen, diagnose and treat” are both valuable approaches.”

Irrespective of the approach being deployed in educating women, the key to an effective program is reaching the largest proportion of women at risk. Organized screening programs, comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control, community education, social mobilization, vaccination, etc. can go a long way in improving cervical cancer control. Cervical Health Awareness Month is an opportunity to dedicated work, for a whole month, towards ensuring that our women remain safe and prevented from this deadly cancer. Let us spread the word around, not only among our female friends but also among our male friends, peers and family so that in case of such diagnosis, every person around must be aware of the next critical steps involved in treating the patient. Let us all be well-equipped for a better tomorrow because prevention is certainly better than cure.

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End of Year Roundup

As 2018 draws to a close, the team at Shivom are incredibly proud of what we’ve accomplished in the past year, and look forward to progressing in our mission to build the world’s largest blockchain-based genomic data hub for years to come.

As those who have been supporting us know, we’ve come a long way from where we were this time last year. After closing an incredibly successful ICO, we’re proud to say that the OMX token is listed on four exchanges. We’ve assembled an impressive team and Innovation Council, restructured, the company’s leadership, redesigned our website and forged important partnerships, opened up an office in London, all whilst continuing to fine-tune the Shivom platform – in case you missed it, we released the Alpha last month, allowing users to securely upload DNA data and create a wallet which, beginning in Q1 2019, will allow them to monetize the sharing of this information with researchers and institutions.

You can look forward to a handful of other updates around that time. Our next release will integrate features such as Enterprise Search and analytic tools for pharmaceutical and healthcare organizations, to name a few.

In our ongoing goal to contribute to the fields of predictive and preventative medicine, Shivom in coordination with local partners have commenced with the development of clinical research pilot projects focused on the collection of  DNA samples from those afflicted with sickle-cell disease and type-2 diabetes (in Sub-Saharan Africa and India, respectively). Both of these diseases are rampant in these regions, and while modern technologies allow for their diagnoses, they often go unnoticed. Alongside our partners,  Genetic Technologies Limited, eMQT, and the local partners in India, we’ll rely on the Shivom platform to collect and store genomic information securely, before sequencing and analysing it, allowing researchers to devise better and more affordable treatments, both globally and in specific regions.  Other partnerships formed this year include MeFy, Atana and SingularityNET both pioneers in the blockchain space.

In addition to our blockchain partnerships, we’re of course also thrilled to be working closely with our new London-based bioinformatics partner Lifebit. Lifebit are creating a cloud-based cognitive system, leveraging sophisticated machine learning algorithms to allow their software to draw powerful insights from genetic information.

We intend to integrate Lifebit’s ‘Deploit’ pipeline, which will allow users and organizations using the Shivom platform to perform analytics on their data automatically. Its widespread use by R&D departments and other players in healthcare is a testament to the quality of the insights derived from genomic information fed into the system. What this means for Shivom users is highly scalable, highly effective and near-instant analytics around the clocks. Shivom will provide presets for easy use, though tech-savvy users and businesses will have a wide variety of customization options with Docker services.

In other news, we hope you caught the Advancements on CNBC on the 16th of December, where the world of blockchain technology was explored by Ted Danson, with a special feature on Shivom.

In other events, the team have been busy in this last quarter sharing the Shivom story across the globe.  CSO Gourish Singla represented Shivom at the Malta Blockchain Summit and Slush Small Talks, India. COO DR Natalie Pankova and Marketing Director Nate Raine attended HealthCare Unblocked in London.  The penultimate event of the year, the Digital Freedom Festival, saw CEO, Henry Ines give a keynote titled “The Future of Health: Reinvention of Healthcare & Wellness”

Where to find us next

We are already busy with plans for the start of the year with Henry Ines, CEO recently announced our exciting partnership with FMW Media Works, the parent Company of ‘NEW TO THE STREET’ and our appearance on their 12-month TV series ‘EXPLORING THE BLOCK’ which will air on the FOX Business Network. We look forward to sharing our journey to date as a health-tech startup and showcasing our genomics datahub and marketplace powered by blockchain and AI technology.

January will see us travel to Silicon Valley to the Precision Medicine World Congress where are excited to be presenting to the Pharma community. Additionally, Dr Axel Schumacher will also be speaking at the Next Level Life Sciences in Basel.  

It’s been a busy and productive year. We’ve come a long way, and have no intention of slowing down anytime soon. None of our efforts would have been possible without the support of our vibrant community and backers, so we’d like to thank you all profusely for joining us on our mission.

Happy Holidays!

The Shivom Team

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Breast Cancer Awareness Month: A Look at the BRCA Gene

As October is the month of Breast Cancer Awareness, we thought it a good idea to examine the BRCA genes in more detail, given our area of focus. In case you missed it, Shivom recently announced its partnership with Genetic Technologies Limited, in the aim of improving the methods for predicting the presence of cancer (and subsequently preventing it) with Big Data analysis of individuals’ genes.

“We believe blockchain technology will open up markets to make it much more efficient to catch many more users and practitioners. Not only that, by using the Shivom platform to its full potential, we will also be able to access the benefits of research in collaboration with other personalized healthcare organizations,” commented Dr Paul Kasian, Chairman & Interim CEO of GTG.

Research on breast cancer is perhaps one of the most important medical pursuits of our era. The disease is the second leading cause of death in women, with one in eight being diagnosed in their lifetime (men can also be affected, though it’s a much rarer occurrence).

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes linked to the odds that someone develops the cancer. Contrary to popular belief, these genes are beneficial to individuals, and normally prevent the spread of cancer by suppressing tumours. Unfortunately, problems arise when the pair mutate (and consequently, no longer function as intended). Of those affected by a mutation, 55–65% with the BRCA1 mutation and 45% with the BRCA2 mutation will develop cancer by the age of 70. This is all too common. It’s something that, collectively, we need to better understand in order to actively combat and reduce incidences.

There’s some very good work underway already, and we’re eager to meaningfully contribute to the efforts. We’re firm believers in the power of data — specifically, the genomic information of individuals around the world. DNA holds troves of secrets that, once unlocked, could shed some light on some of the medical questions that have plagued us for centuries. In the age of artificial intelligence, data is fuel for building powerful models for prediction and further analysis. It’s important to ensure the pool is as large as possible to drive accurate results.

Blockchain protocols are the perfect chassis for building secure storage mediums for individuals, whilst also allowing them to share it with given parties — whether research institutions or companies operating in the medical field. It would offer them the ability to simply grant access outright, or to leverage a fee to ensure they’re remunerated for their contribution. Moreover, the nature of the tech is that it can reach even the most remote regions, granting researchers access to a much larger and diverse sample size.

In light of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, it’s important to remember what can be achieved with the technologies we have at our disposition. A key priority for all working with blockchain technology should be deploying it for the benefit of individuals globally — for us, that’s the logging, understanding and prevention of life-threatening diseases.

If you’d like to donate to the Breast Cancer Foundation, you can do so here.

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It’s time to take ownership

Blockchain can help you control, protect and share your health data — helping you and others live healthier, longer lives

Exciting advances in precision medicine over the past decade should mean you and your family are now receiving advanced levels of healthcare and disease prevention based on your genetic makeup.

Researchers and health professionals across the world should be enjoying access to a vast resource of genomic sequencing data and health records — helping them discover cures and treatments for every type of disease.

However, the reality is far different.

An ocean of data about your health and the health of others is likely to be spread across many databases. You probably have little ability to view or update this data, let alone control who has access to it.

As for genomic data, only a small percentage of people have had theirs sequenced — largely because there isn’t a secure place to hold and leverage it.

Time to take control

This is a tragedy. You should have the opportunity to own your health and DNA data, and to maintain total control over it. You should have up-to-date information about the diseases you are predisposed to. Every few months, your data dashboard should be updated to inform you of the latest insights scientists have about your DNA.

If you know you’re genetically predisposed to osteoporosis, you should be able to proactively take steps to avoid its onset. If you’re aware there is a high chance of being afflicted by a certain type of cancer, you should be regularly tested to ensure you can catch it early.

Health apps and silos

There are many ongoing initiatives across the globe aiming to facilitate the storage and sharing of genomic data, and thereby enable the progress of precision medicine. Health apps based on genomic and other health data are good examples. But they tend to be competing against each other and creating even more data silos.

Meanwhile, a few large businesses hold the monopoly on most genomic data, and make large profits from selling it to third parties, usually without sharing the earnings with the data donor.

This stifles research and innovation and prevents medicine and healthcare moving forward at the pace it should.

You and your doctors are being denied vital knowledge about your health, and brilliant scientists are being denied access to genomic datasets that could help them gather potentially transformational information that could lead to the eradication of diseases.

Cyber attacks

Not only is your future health being compromised by the current system, but your health data is being left vulnerable too. In the wake of major data breaches like those at Yahoo! and Equifax, it’s hard to trust any organization with sensitive data stored on cloud databases or local servers.

The release on the internet of your data records could have huge implications on your personal relationships, your future employment, your health insurance and your general well being. Cyber criminals know this, so medical data will increasingly be targeted to leverage money from health organizations and patients themselves.

It’s no wonder few people are largely unwilling to map out their DNA and risk this data being spread across the internet.

A blockchain solution

But blockchain-based technology could be the solution everyone is waiting for.

Its distributed ledger technology removes the vulnerabilities associated with cloud databases. This means it would be safe to store even the most sensitive DNA and healthcare data on the blockchain, without fear of it being stolen or misused in a cyber attack.

A centralized health data hub built on the blockchain could let you maintain full ownership of this data, allowing you to share it with health professionals.

Let’s imagine you’re visiting a specialist doctor for a consultation and tests. She would just need a laptop or mobile device to access your health data in the ecosystem — using a private key (in other words a temporary password) supplied by you. At no time would the data be stored in her own computer or cloud database. And she would only have access to your data while you were under her care.

If you wanted to share the data with a research firm, you could give them access to your data in anonymized form for a certain period, and perhaps receive a payment in exchange.

A new ecosystem

Healthcare and wellness providers such as clinics, pharmaceuticals, research organizations, governments, patient-support groups and insurance companies could join an ecosystem built around this blockchain technology.

They would no longer have to compete with each other to gather data. It would be there for them all to use — for example, to boost clinical trials or facilitate drug research and development. This data could be easily sharable and interoperable across technological, geographic, jurisdictional, and professional boundaries.

Sharing data

Such a system could offer patients access to applications that leverage their data and enhance their well being and health — for example, nutritional and fitness advice, treatment plans, genealogy, disease predisposition, and lifestyle management.

Looking into the future, as more personalized biological information becomes available, services could be offered that are based not only on genomic data, but also other health, biological, and environmental information, facilitating new insights into disease processes.

This is an exciting time in healthcare. Soon, you’ll have the power to leverage your DNA and health data to live a longer, healthier life, while helping billions of others on the planet.

All the technologies are in place. The world just needs a suitable health data platform.

About the Author

Dr Axel Schumacher who has over 20 years’ experience in the field of genetics; and is the Chief Scientific Officer of blockchain-enabled genomic data-hub startup Shivom. Shivom’s platform aims to be the largest genomic & healthcare data-hub on the planet, allowing the world’s population to have their genome sequenced and securely stored with the help of blockchain technology.

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